pg_escape_string

(PHP 4 >= 4.2.0, PHP 5)

pg_escape_string Escape a string for insertion into a text field

Description

string pg_escape_string ([ resource $connection ], string $data )

pg_escape_string() escapes a string for insertion into the database. It returns an escaped string in the PostgreSQL format. Use of this function is recommended instead of addslashes(). If the type of the column is bytea, pg_escape_bytea() must be used instead.

Note:

This function requires PostgreSQL 7.2 or later.

Parameters

connection

PostgreSQL database connection resource. When connection is not present, the default connection is used. The default connection is the last connection made by pg_connect() or pg_pconnect().

data

A string containing text to be escaped.

Return Values

A string containing the escaped data.

Changelog

Version Description
5.2.0 connection added

Examples

Example #1 pg_escape_string() example

<?php 
  
// Connect to the database
  
$dbconn pg_connect('dbname=foo');
  
  
// Read in a text file (containing apostrophes and backslashes)
  
$data file_get_contents('letter.txt');
  
  
// Escape the text data
  
$escaped pg_escape_string($data);
  
  
// Insert it into the database
  
pg_query("INSERT INTO correspondence (name, data) VALUES ('My letter', '{$escaped}')");
?>

See Also

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User Contributed Notes 9 notes

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5
Nathan Bruer
6 years ago
If your database is a UTF-8 database, you will run into problems trying to add some data into your database...

for securty issues and/or compatability you may need to use the: utf_encode() (http://php.net/utf8-encode) function.

for example:
<?php
$my_data
= pg_escape_string(utf8_encode($_POST['my_data']));
?>
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3
strata_ranger at hotmail dot com
3 years ago
Forthose curious, the exact escaping performed on the string may vary slightly depending on your database configuration.

For example, if your database's standard_conforming_strings variable is OFF, backslashes are treated as a special character and pg_escape_string() will ensure they are properly escaped.  If this variable is ON, backslashes will be treated as ordinary characters, and pg_escape_string() will leave them as-is.  In either case, the behavior matches the configuration of the database connection.
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1
johniskew2 at yahoo dot com
7 years ago
For those who escape their single quotes with a backslash (ie \') instead of two single quotes in a row (ie '') there has recently been a SERIOUS sql injection vulnerability that can be employed taking advantage of your chosen escaping method.  More info here: http://www.postgresql.org/docs/techdocs.50
Even after the postgre update, you may still be limited to what you can do with your queries if you still insist on backslash escaping. It's a lesson to always use the PHP functions to do proper escaping instead of adhoc addslashes or magic quotes escaping.
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1
meng
7 years ago
Since php 5.1 the new function pg_query_params() was introduced. With this function you can use bind variables and don't have to escape strings. If you can use it, do so. If unsure why, check the changelog for Postgres 8.0.8.
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0
ringerc at ringerc dot id dot au
1 month ago
You should prefer to use pg_query_params, i.e. use parameterized queries, rather than using pg_escape_string. Or use the newer PDO interface with its parameterized query support.

If you must substitute values directly, e.g. in DDL commands that don't support execution as parameterized queries, do so with pg_escape_literal:

http://au1.php.net/manual/en/function.pg-escape-literal.php

Identifiers can't be used as query parameters. Always use pg_escape_identifier for these if they're substituted dynamically:

http://au1.php.net/manual/en/function.pg-escape-identifier.php

You should not need to change text encodings when using this function. Make sure your connection's client_encoding is set to the text encoding used by PHP, and the PostgreSQL client driver will take care of text encodings for you. No explicit utf-8 conversions should be necessary with a correctly set  client_encoding.
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0
strata_ranger at hotmail dot com
2 years ago
This may seem obvious, but remember that pg_escape_string escapes values for use as string literals in an SQL query -- if you need to escape arbitrary strings for use as SQL identifiers (column names, etc.), there doesn't seem to be a PHP function for that so you'll have to do that escaping yourself.  (PostgreSQL has an in-database function, quote_ident(), that does this.)

This can be an issue if your database contains mixed-case (or otherwise unusual) column names and you have a class interface managing your database/query interactions (for connecting to different types of databases).  If you don't double-quote your column names then postgreSQL will match them case-insensitively, but will label the results in all-lowercase (which differs from MySQL).

For example:

<?php
// Plain column identifier
$res = pg_query("Select columnName from table");
$row = pg_fetch_assoc($res);

var_dump($row['columnName']); // Doesn't work (throws E_NOTICE)
var_dump($row['columnname']); // Works

// Escaped column identifier
$res = pg_query("Select \"columnName\" from table");
$row = pg_fetch_assoc($res);

var_dump($row['columnName']); // Works
var_dump($row['columnname']); // Doesn't
?>
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0
ppp
2 years ago
pg_escape_string() won't cast array arguments to the "Array" string like php usually does; it returns NULL instead. The following statements all evaluate to true:

<?php
$a
= array('foo', 'bar');

"$a" == 'Array';
(string)
$a == 'Array';
$a . '' == 'Array';

is_null(pg_escape_string($a));
?>
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0
Gautam Khanna
6 years ago
Security methods which you use depend on the specific purpose. For those who dont know, take a look at the following built-in PHP functions:

strip_tags()            to remove HTML characters
(also see htmlspecialchars)

escapeshellarg()      to escape shell commands etc
escapeshellcmd()

mysql_real_escape_string()     to escape mySQL commands.

Enjoy!

web dot expert dot panel at gmail dot com
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0
otix
7 years ago
Creating a double-tick is just fine. It works the same as the backslash-tick syntax. From the PostgreSQL docs:

The fact that string constants are bound by single quotes presents an obvious semantic problem, however, in that if the sequence itself contains a single quote, the literal bounds of the constant are made ambiguous. To escape (make literal) a single quote within the string, you may type two adjacent single quotes. The parser will interpret the two adjacent single quotes within the string constant as a single, literal single quote. PostgreSQL will also allow single quotes to be embedded by using a C-style backslash.
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